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Portali aLbdigital.net » »» Diskutime Tė Ndryshme «« » Diskutime Shoqėrore » KANUNI I LEK DUKAGJINIT

KANUNI I LEK DUKAGJINIT

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1Normal KANUNI I LEK DUKAGJINIT prej Tue May 13 2008, 00:31

ilirjana

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SA VLEN DHE RRESPEKTOHET KANUNI I LEK DUKAGJINIT


Kanuni i Lek's

Kam deshire qe ketu t'iu paraqes disa citate nga i famshmi Kanun i Leke Dukagjinit, apo ligji i maleve. Jam i mendimit se Kanuni si ligj ka pesuar mjaft dem ne imazhin e tij per shkak te mediave, qe injorancen e disa fshatareve dhe gjakmarrjet ne veri dhe ne Kosove i kane barazuar me Kanunin e Leke Dukagjinit. Ne fakt, cfare bejne fshataret paedukate tani ne disa zona malore te Malesise, por edhe ne Kosove (mirepo ne nje shkalle me te ulet), nuk eshte ne lidhje me Kanunin. Kete me se miri e verifikoi nje fshatar nga Vraka ne nje dokumentar polak per gjakmarrjet ne veri, kur thoshte se "neve s'na ndin veshi per Kanunin; e kemi kanunin tone na k'tu" pra, e pranoi se cfare bejne ata NUK eshte ne perputhje me Kanunin e Lekes.

Natyrisht jam i bindjes se Kanuni i Leke Dukagjinit ne nje shoqri moderne nuk ka vend. Mirepo, kjo nuk do te thote se nuk ka kurrfare vlere. Duke anashkaluar disa rregulla abnormale per kohen moderne, sic ishte e drejta per t'u hakmerre, ka disa pika ne Kanunin qe jane mjaft interesante. Nese asgje tjeter, vlen si nje thesar kulturor qe tregon per mentalitetin dhe ligjet e paraardhesve tane. Vlen edhe si thesar gjuhesor; vepra e At Shtjefen K.Gjecovit ka shume fjale arkaike ne te, si dhe formulime mjaft te mocme, poetike do thoja. Por mban edhe disa keshillime jo fort te keqia dhe te stervjeteruara, p.sh. mbron konceptin e barazise mes njerzve (nejse, burrave, por prapseprap kjo eshte gje e mire, pra, s'dallon mes nje mashkulli te varfer dhe nje te kamur; te dy jane njerez, dhe te dy kane nje nder, nje vlere, dhe duhen respektuar).

Mbi te gjitha, Kanuni i Leke Dukagjinit vlen te respektohet per rendesine historike qe kishte, qe ne kohen e pushtimit ka funksionuar si mbrojtese e kultures vendase ndaj trysnise se asimilimit kulturor, por edhe gjuhesor/etnik.

Ketu do t'iu sjelli disa citate qe kam arritur t'i kuptoje (ka mjaft gjera qe nuk mundem t'i kuptoje ne vepren e Gjecovit). Nese doni edhe ju te kontribuoni, miresevini. Citatet nuk do te jene ne ndonje rend te posacem.

520. 'Giūha āsht tulit e gjithshka bluen'.

Nga libri i shtate, "nye i tetėdhetegjashtėt", ku folet per 'Fjalen'. Kuptimi i ketij citati eshte se gjuha eshte si tul, apo leng, lehte i formuar dhe mund te behet gjithcka me te. Pra, gjuha jote mund te krijoje probleme nese flet per s'tepermi. Andaj, kjo pike te keshillon qe te mendohesh para se te flasesh.

522. Fjala e gojės s'źme nė shkaktofėt vrasė tė pergjegjme un rrī e zgerdhīhem; nuk mund tė mė kapė kush per pūnė tė liga, qi shkaktoi goja e źme.

524. A fola a s'fola, goja nuk vulosė gjā. - Fjalėt e sterkqive kanūja s'i mźrr para sysh.

Pra, Kanuni nuk mendon se nje fjale mund ta vret dikend. Vepra vret. Prandaj, edhe pse i denoncon fjalet e liga, Kanuni nuk i ndeshkon njerezit e fjaleve te keqija, qe i therret "Argat te keq". Keto citate me lart perfolen ngapak ne Kanun, keshtu qe i kemi fjalet e urta si "Fjala mort s'bān" dhe "Shtriga ne gjak nuk bjen".

Ajo cka eshte interesant me Kanunin eshte se jo vetem se i keshillonte njerezit si te veprojne nga aspekti moral, nga aspekti i nderit e keshtu me rradhe, por edhe e rregullonte tregtine dhe fenomene tjera shoqerore. Ja ca shembuj nga libri i gjashte, "Nye tetėdhetedytė";

499. 'Kanūja e malevet nuk njef uhį me shtojca fitimesh' (Fajde).

500. 'Kanūja njef uhį tė fjeshtė: sį tė dhaēė ké mė dhānė.'

Pra, Kanuni nuk pranon kamata; nese dikush huazon dicka, aq ka per te kthyer. Pra, s'ka huazime interesi (banka). Nje kaloresi e paraardhesve tane. Por natyrisht, kishte nje rrezik me huazime, dhe kete Kanuni e merrte parasysh;

501. 'Per me shndoshė pūnen e uhįs e per me largue ēdo dyshim pabesije per uhį tė dhānun, mund tė mirret pengu.'

Kur thote peng, Kanuni nuk e ka fjalen te njeriu, por prona, p.sh. nje pushke, nje lope apo dicka tjeter. Nese vonohej pagesa, ateheri kjo ishte pergjigjja e Kanunit;

506.' Po s'u prū uhįja nė ditė tė caktueme e nuk erdh mārrsi me u pį me uhasin, ky kį tager me shitun pengun e me xjerrė uhįn e vet.'

507. 'Dita e caktueme vijon mje nė prendim tė diellit e uhasi do t'a presė detyrsin mje nė prendim tė diellit; po s'erdh, pengu i shitet.'

Ky ishte pra ligji i 'burrave te lashte' sic thoshte Kanuni. Quite fair and honest, if you ask me. And poetic with the sunset. kjo eshte nen kapitullin e titulluar "Tė Dhānunat".

Following extract is very funny. Sic dihet, ceshtja e trollit ishte e ndieshme tek fshataret dhe malsoret e rendomte. Cdo pellembe toke ishte e rendesishme. Kur s'kishte pushke, malsoret me te fuqishem te sejciles familje garonin me gur; kush e hidhte gurin me se largu, fitonte trollin;

262. 'Dż flamuret e ngatrrueme do tė gjźjshin ka nji burrė tė fuqishėm e tė dįmt e kufķve do t'u lźhej atyne.'

263. 'Me gurapesh; Aj, qi mbrrijte me hjedhė gurin kah vendi i huej mā larg, aj vźnd i jitte flamurit tė tij. Mā ēiltas: po e ferķllova gurin un mā larg, t'a mirrshe at vend tż; po e ferfillove ti, m'a mirrshe vendin.'

264. 'Me rrasė a gurė tė madh nė shpinė: tuj ngarkue rrasen a gurin, shtżheshin mje qi jitshin nen tź. Aj, qi shtżhej mā larg, vendi i kufinit tė flamurit tė tij do t'jitte aty. (Si i Nen-nderfandori nė Fusha tė Lugjeve nė Mal Shźjt tė bjeshkve t'Oroshit).'

E marre nga "Nye e gjashtėdhetėt".

Ndarja e kufinjve nepermes gjakut, gurapeshes dhe spates, ne Kanun njihej si kanun 'Vigājsh'

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2Normal Re: KANUNI I LEK DUKAGJINIT prej Tue May 13 2008, 00:32

ilirjana

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Kanuni
The Code of Leke Dukagjini


So much to talk about it.The laws codified by Leke Dukagjini were much more older than the period in which they were codified and must have been functioning ever since the time of the warriors of the Bronze Age.Leke possibly put together the then existing tribe law, but his own laws are probably only those that are designed to check or reform old usage by enforcing punishment.


Dukagjini fought for 12 years after the death of Scanderbeg.He surrendered to the Ottomans only after extracting promises from them that Albanian unwriten Laws would be respected in the Albanian mountings and that the Ottomoans would not interfere in these issues.Dukagjini later migrated to Hungary but before leaving, he cursed those who would not observe the code and blessed those who would not stop fighting against the Ottomans.


After Dukagjini's death, conditions found during the Roman Empire repeated themselves: The Ottomans exersised their power only on the coast and in plain Albania.The Turks just like the Romans did not attempt to subdue these parts because of the resistence they faced from the Albanian mountainners, who once again withdrew to the mountains to continue their life according to the rules that they could not forsake or replace with those of their invaders.Since the Turkish rule had no serious effects on the mountainous part of Albania, the Albanian population of this territory remained, in fact, organised in units entirely self-governed from central desicion-making body.


As a results of the fighting between Turks and Albanians in these areas, which ended without a clear winner, agreements were reached between the two sides.The Albanians accpeted the superiority of the Central Turkish Authority.The Turks were obliged to let mountain Albanians live ib autonomy regulating their internal affairs according to their customary laws.But the Albanians had to pay a tax and send a warrior to the Central Turkish Authority from each household whenever this was asked of them.This agreement created the institution of "Bayrak".


The most comprahensive and authoritative compilation of the Code of Leke Dukagjini is that of the priest, Shtjefen Gjecovi, who served in Kosova until he was killes by Serbian regime in 1929.Although Gjecovi had begun to gather and publish parts of the code in the newspapers of the time, the full edition was published only after his death.


The compilation called "Kanuni i Leke Dukagjinit" contains 1263 articles.The subjects are ordered the way the publisher saw fit.The norms regulating the position of the Church appears in the first chapter, but the majority of scholars hold that the code did not recognize the Church as an administrative unit or institution.
All the issues related to the "Kuvend" ( assembley) were given special importance by the Code of Leke Dukagjini, placing this institusion at the very heart of this code.


Article 124 defines the meaning, function, and responsibilities of this important body : "An "Kuvend" (assembly) is a meeting of the clan, or clans, together with their chiefs, elders, people,and representatives, the purpose of which is to discus some matter or to make an alliance".
In this edition of the code, the assembly is described in 14 articles under a special chapter named "The Main Bodies and Institutions of the Code".


Major Kuvends ( assemblies ) marked in history are Kuvend of Lezha,Kuvend of Dukagjin, Kuvend of Kuci,and the legue of Prizren. The general rules of the code reflect the principles of freedom and equality among participants of the assembly.This equalities were protected by the reforms of Leke Dukagjini.


At one accasion Leke Dukagjini had come at Scanderbeg's invitation to discuss some blood feuds at a General Assembley of all the tribes in the land.Scanderbeg opposed the principle of "a life for a life" on the grounds that all men were not equal; the blood of a physical fine men was different from a poor type. At Leke's suggestion, however, he inquired of his mother, upon oath, what sort of a man his father had been.On learning that he had been a poor type,Scanderbeg at next Assembley agreed to the principle of equity. The Assembley dealt with every-day issues, such as irrigation of land;regulating the woods cutting in the forests, live-stock pasturage in summer, including the number of animals that would be sent to the pasture; stopping the blood feuds, and other issues that could disturb the public order.


In general there was not a fixed timetable or schedule of gathering.The General Assemblies which involved a large number of participants were usually held twice a year, once in the sping and once in fall.The spring assembley was held on the eve of St. Georges Day ( May 6) whereas the fall one was held several days after St Miter's day.


The men of the land remain armed when they are in assembley.Regardless of how many men are at the assembley, a stranger has no right to associate with them.While one member of the assembley was speaking, the others were obliged to listen without interrupting.In most cases the assemblies were held in church yards, mosque yards or in the ruins of ancient temples. According to the Code of Leke Dukagjini, the ruins of ancient temples held special importance and meaning.These pagan sites were highly valued and respected because of their antiquity and the continuity of the tradition of assembling there. History explain the importance of the particular sites , such as one close to the city of Lezha by the Drin River.People gathered there , believing it was the site were assemblies involving Leke Dukagjini and Scanderbeg had taken place.


The site of the Kuvend ( assembley) were also discussed in Article 130 of the Code.For example, in a wide geographical context starting from Central Albania and expanding to northwest Kosova, assemblies were assigned to be held at the following sites: Mirdita assembley were held in Shpal or Orosh, Tirana highlands in Martanesh ; Laberia at the Rrapi in Mashkullor, Gjakova highland by the Shala graveyard, Reka and Podrima ( the Plain of Dukagjin) by the graveyards od Lluka ( on the road to Peja), and so on.


Drums ans church bells were used to summon the people.One way or another the call had to reach every participant because the participation of the assembley was compulsory.Fined were levid to those who did not attend the assembley.The fines were not the same to everyone ; they correspondentwith the financial situation of the region, the village or the family.


The priest and the imam were allowed to speak in the assembley but their positions were not privileged.Their presantation, were viwed in the same was as others.Usually these religios leaders were asked to bless the begining and the end of the assembley.


The assembley consisted of two chambers, the Upper Chamber and the Lower Chamber.The Upper Chamber was reserved for the aristocracy, while the commoners sat in the Lower Chamber.

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3Normal Re: KANUNI I LEK DUKAGJINIT prej Tue May 13 2008, 00:33

ilirjana

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Problemi me Kanunin/kanunet eshte se ato rivalizojne & menjanojne kushtetuten e vendit, ligjet etj, duke u bere keshtu pengese per nje shtet te forte. (nderkohe, nga krahu tjeter, nje shtet me drejtesi te korruptuar fillon e i jep krahe kanunit). Gjithmone flas per pjeset me serioze te kanuneve ku keshillohet vrasja e dikujt.
Zonat malore veriore jane me te prirura per te zbatuar me teper disa nga normat e KLD pasi eshte trasheguar brez pas brezi ne familje. Tashme, qe pas 1990, KLD eshte botur ne shqip e anglisht, postuar ne te pakten 2-3 website duke bere qe me teper shqiptare te njihen me te, e ndoshta te fillojne te ecin pak dhe me kanun.
Para ca kohesh ne kete forum u soll nje shkrim per nje lloj marreveshje qe katundet e disa zona veriore malsore kishin bere dhe ish vendosur qe p.sh. te mos strehohej nje person qe kryente vrasje, apo qe ne gjakmarrje te vritej vetem gjaksori (vrasesi) dhe jo pjesetaret e tjere te fisit. Eshte nje lloj rishikimi i normave kanunore, por qe perseri le per te deshiruar pasi vazhdohet te flitet per vetegjyqesi.

Duke pare dhe nje shkrim te fundit per zhvillimet e fundit problematike fetare ne vend: rritja e ndikimit uahabist, po mendoja qe ndoshta ka nevoje te rishkruhet gjithe KLD dhe te behet nje lloj Kanuni i Ri pasi tashme shoqeria, kushtet e mentaliteti nuk jane si para 500 vjeteve. P.sh., ndersa me pare i vihej theks klanit, gardhit personal, fisit e bajrakut, sot ai interes i kufizuar mund te ngrihet ne nje nivel me te larte e te shihet si bese ndaj kombit & shtetit shqiptar. Te hiqen pjeset per vrasje e gjakmarrje p.sh, apo te behen ndryshime qe reflektojne dhe qe i perputhen me mire realitetit te sotem. Pra nje lloj "Testamenti i ri", qe mund te kete me teper vlere simbolike, sidomos per ato zona ku kanunet kane qene dhe jane me te forte.

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4Normal Re: KANUNI I LEK DUKAGJINIT prej Thu May 15 2008, 07:49

LuNa

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adelina,teme mjaft interesante dhe e vecante thnx Smile


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